Gendered Impact of Age, Toilet Facilities, and Cooking Fuels on the Occurrence of Acute Respiratory Infections in Toddlers in Indonesia and the Philippines

Lilis Sulistyorini, Chung Yi Li, Leka Lutpiatina, Ricko Dharmadi Utama, Nurlailah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Introduction: The purpose of the study was to analyze the risk factors of acute respiratory infections (ARI) in children under five in Indonesia and the Philippines and to implement a primary review of the characteristics of toddlers and their households in both countries. Methods: Data were obtained from the 2017 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) of Indonesia and the Philippines. The characteristics of children, mothers, and households were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression to examine the significant correlations between variables. Results: The percentage of children under five with ARI symptoms in 2017 was 1.51% in the Philippines and 4.22% in Indonesia. In Indonesia, males aged under one year had significantly lower occurrences of ARI symptoms (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.36–0.82). In the Philippines, dirty cooking fuels had a significant effect on increasing the likelihood of ARI in female toddlers (OR 4.01, 95% CI 1.02–15.83). In the Philippines, the unavailability of toilet facilities had a significant effect on increasing the likelihood of ARI in male toddlers (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.15–6.16). Conclusion: The comparison of risk factors between male and female toddlers revealed different results in some variables, as follows: children aged under one year, dirty cooking fuels, and unavailable toilet facilities. The role of parents is fundamental in taking care of female toddlers, since they are more exposed to ARI at the age of under one year and are more prone to indoor air pollution from solid cooking fuels.

Original languageEnglish
Article number14582
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Volume19
Issue number21
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022

Keywords

  • Demographic and Health Survey
  • Indonesia-Philippines
  • acute respiratory infections
  • gender risk factor
  • under-five children
  • year 2017

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