Formulation, characteristics and anti-bacterial effects of Euphorbia hirta L. mouthwash

Benni Iskandar, Anita Lukman, Sandika Syaputra, Ucy N.H. Al-Abrori, Meircurius D.C. Surboyo, Ching Kuo Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: Mouthwash is a liquid solution used to improve oral health and breath freshness as well as reduce oral bacteria. This study aims to formulate a Euphorbia hirta L. ethanol extract for mouthwash, evaluate the physical properties, and determine its anti-bacterial effects against Streptococcus mutans. Methods: Each mouthwash formula was created by utilising a solubilisation technique. Three mouthwash formulas were created from different concentrations of Euphorbia hirta L. ethanol extract (0.5%, 1%, and 2%), and referred to as F1, F2, and F3. The organoleptic properties, pH levels, specific gravity, viscosity, flow properties, stability, irritation level, contact time, and anti-bacterial effects were evaluated for each concentration. Result: The resulting formulas featured a distinctive smell of oleum menthae piperitae and had a sweet and spicy taste. These characteristics remained unaffected during storage. The acidity levels ranged from 4.59 to 6.0, the weight masses ranged from 0.9693 to 1.0710 g/ml, and the viscosity ranged from 1.50 to 3.00 cP. F3 concentration was non-irritating with mucus production at 11.325%, had lower contact time with a neutralisation of 57.14% of Streptococcus mutans colonies in 30 seconds, and showed stable anti-bacterial control against Streptococcus mutans (p = 0.000) within the first week of use. Conclusion: The study results offer the first proof of Euphorbia hirta L. used for improving human health. The formulation features the ideal physical and stability characteristics of mouthwash, and possesses anti-bacterial properties that can potentially combat Streptococcus mutans. Clinical use of the formulated mouthwash must be explored in future research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)271-282
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Taibah University Medical Sciences
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2022


  • Euphorbia hirta L.
  • Human health
  • Medicine
  • Mouthwash
  • Streptococcus mutans


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