Background: The metaverse as a digital environment for Industrial Revolution 4.0 is one major form of use of the internet. There are 202.6 million internet users in Indonesia in 2021, or 73.7% of the total population. A total of 138.1 million Indonesians aged 18–64 years have used the internet to make purchases through e-commerce and 74.4% make food purchases through online food delivery applications. Most of the foods sold in online applications are foods that are high in carbohydrate and fat, but with fewer vegetables and fruits. So, it can be concluded that the food sold is energy dense, nutrition poor. Because of that, people run the risk of degenerative diseases such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, stroke, and others. By using the health belief model approach, this study aims to analyze the association between the habits of consuming food and beverages purchased online through the Grab Food or Go Food applications with the nutritional status of the people in Surabaya and Pasuruan, East Java, Indonesia. Methods: This research is quantitative research using a cross-sectional approach. Data collection was carried out offline using paper questionnaires and analysis with SPSS. Result: There was significant association between the characteristics of the respondents (age, marriage status, profession, education level, income, and allowance) and health beliefs. However, there was no association between health beliefs and the frequency of online orders. Finally, no significant association was found between perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefit, perceived barrier, cues to action, self-efficacy and nutritional status. Thus, it is still important for the government to increase socialization and education in the importance of balanced nutrition and nutritional status so that people can protect themselves and prevent the onset of degenerative diseases.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4482
Issue number21
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022


  • consumption habits
  • health and wellbeing
  • health belief model
  • nutritional status


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