FIR agreement Indonesia – Singapore: What are the legal implications?

Adhy Riadhy Arafah, Aktieva Tri Tjitrawati, Alifia Nuril Bais, Firnida Hanan Nurkhalisha

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper explores the implications of Indonesia's agreement to delegate the Flight Information Region (FIR) of air navigation services to Singapore, specifically in the airspace of the Riau and Natuna islands, as stated in Presidential Regulation Number 109 of 2022. Using the normative juridical method, this study examines the intricate details of the agreement, with a focus on its potential legal consequences for Indonesia's national and international obligations. Although Indonesia retains sovereignty over its territory, this analysis scrutinizes the nuanced provisions of the agreement and their implications, particularly in terms of the technical aspects of air traffic services provided by the Singapore Air Traffic Services Provider above Indonesia's territories, which the agreement does not explicitly delineate the responsibilities or shared consequences in law. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate Indonesia's increased responsibility under the new agreement and emphasize the importance of a careful approach to its implementation. By exploring the multifaceted dimensions of national and international interests, this study seeks to highlight the imperative for Indonesia to navigate the agreement prudently. Ultimately, this analysis aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of Indonesia's obligations, potential challenges, and essential considerations under the renewed agreement of 2022, underscoring the significance of a balanced approach in safeguarding Indonesia's interests on both national and international fronts.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere29708
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 30 Apr 2024


  • Air navigation services
  • Delegation
  • Responsibility


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