Factors associated with disease severity of COVID-19 in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Hermina Novida, Soebagijo Adi Soelistyo, Cupuwatie Cahyani, Nency Siagian, Usman Hadi, Agung Pranoto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus causes a decline in immunological function, an increase in proinflammatory cytokines, and a prothrombotic state, thus providing risk factors for the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of the present study was to analyze the risk factors associated with the severity of COVID-19 in patients with T2DM. A cross-sectional observational study was performed on 201 patients with T2DM from May 1 to August 31, 2020 and admitted to the isolation ward of Dr Soetomo General Hospital (Surabaya, Indonesia). The patients were divided into severe (108 cases; 53.7%) and non-severe (93 cases; 46.3%) groups, which were considered the dependent variables. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed. The independent variables were age, sex, diabetes onset, chronic complications, presence of hypertension, randomized blood glucose, HbA1c, albumin, and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR). A P-value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. The median age of the 201 subjects was 56 years, with 70.1% <60 years old, 52.7% male, 76.1% with diabetes onset <10 years, and 108 patients (53.7%) in severe condition. The results of the bivariate analysis revealed that diabetes onset >10 years (OR 2.5; P=0.011) was associated with severity of COVID-19 in patients with T2DM, however hypoalbumin (OR 1.93; P=0.054) was not associated with disease severity. Furthermore, multivariate analysis revealed that male sex (OR 2.07; P=0.042), age (≥60 years) (OR 2.92; P=0.008), HbA1c (≥8%) (OR 3.55; P=0.001), hypertension (OR 4.07; P=0.001), and an NLR ≥7.36 (OR 6.39; P=0.001) were associated with severe COVID-19. Collectively, it was revealed that increased NLR, hypertension, poor glycemic control, older age, and male sex were risk factors associated with the severity of COVID-19 among diabetic patients.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8
JournalBiomedical Reports
Volume18
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023

Keywords

  • coronavirus disease 2019
  • prognosis
  • risk factors
  • severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2
  • type 2 diabetes mellitus

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Factors associated with disease severity of COVID-19 in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this