Background: Neonatal sepsis is one of the leading causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries. Blood culture positivity rates and antibiotic resistance pattern of neonatal sepsis differs across various regions. This study aims to identify clinical cofactors associated with blood culture-proven neonatal sepsis and in vitro resistance to first-line antibiotics (ampicillin and gentamicin) from cases originating in a tertiary healthcare center in Surabaya, Indonesia. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted from January 2020 to August 2022 by utilizing secondary data collected from standardized electronic medical records. Microbiologic characteristics and associated factors were statistically analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. Results: Across 266 neonatal sepsis cases, 46.9% were culture-proven and 79.2% of confirmed sepsis were resistant to first-line antibiotics. The most common isolated pathogen is Klebsiella pneumoniae, followed by coagulase-negative Staphylococci, Acinetobacter baumannii and Enterobacter cloacae. Extremely preterm delivery [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 5.813; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.70-19.91] and late-onset sepsis (aOR: 9.165; 95% CI: 5.12-16.40) were associated with culture-proven neonatal sepsis. Increased odds of resistance to first-line antibiotics were identified in extremely preterm (<28 weeks) or very-preterm delivery (28 to <32 weeks) (aOR: 50.80; 95% CI: 1.66-1554.21 and aOR: 45.679; 95% CI: 3.22-647.46, respectively), cesarean section (aOR: 4.149; 95% CI: 1.04-16.53) and an absence of antenatal corticosteroid use (aOR: 0.233; 95% CI: 0.07-0.76). Conclusions: The association between clinical cofactors with culture-proven sepsis and antibiotic resistance emphasizes the importance for clinicians to adjust empirical antibiotic regimens based on the local antibiogram and resource availability.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)56-62
Number of pages7
JournalPediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2024


  • NICU
  • antimicrobial resistance
  • bacterial sepsis
  • neonatal sepsis


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