Factors associated with behavior of reducing anxiety in pregnant women during COVID-19 pandemic

Ika Nur Pratiwi, Retnayu Pradanie, Novita Setyawati, Vimala Ramoo

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1 Citation (Scopus)


Background: Anxiety of pregnant women has increased during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic so that it can affect their quality of life. Anxiety that cannot be overcome will result in stress and depression. The aim of this study was to determine the factors related to the behavior of reducing anxiety in pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This study uses an observational (non-experimental) design with a retrospective cross-sectional approach. The total population of pregnant women respondents was 145 who came from the primary health center in Lamongan, East Java Province, Indonesia. The independent variables were measured using a questionnaire as an instrument for perceived self-efficacy, perceived severity, perceived barrier, susceptibility and perceived benefit. the dependent variable of pregnant women’s behavior in reducing anxiety was also measured using a questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using the Spearman Rho test with a significance level of P<0.05. Results: The results showed the majority of respondents were women of productive age 20–24 years (39%) and second gravida (47.5%). The behavior of pregnant women in reducing anxiety is influenced by factors perceived barrier (P=0.034, r=−0.196), perceived susceptibility (P=0.016, r=0.221) and self-efficacy (P<0.001, r=0.382) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusions: Pregnant women can reduce anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic by increasing self-efficacy and perceived susceptibility, as well as reducing perceived barriers. Therefore, increasing efforts to reduce the anxiety of pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic through information, education and communication directed at reducing perceived barriers and increasing self-efficacy and perceived susceptibility.

Original languageEnglish
Article number18
JournalJournal of Public Health and Emergency
Publication statusPublished - 25 Sept 2023


  • Behavior
  • anxiety
  • coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)
  • maternal health


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