Introduction: In 2020, The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) updated their target to 95-95-95 by 2030, in which signified 95% individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) to achieve viral suppression. The Ministry of Health of Indonesia in 2020 reported that only 14% were known to be virally suppressed after six months of ART. This mandates further attention in order for the country to achieve the 95-95-95 target. Viral load (VL) testing is crucial to identify whether PLHIV on ART has achieved viral suppression. This study aimed to measure HIV VL and identify associated factors, in PLHIV experienced and naïve to ART, residing in Buleleng, Bali, Indonesia. Methods: A hundred and two people living with HIV (PLHIV) were enrolled in this study. Plasma obtained were subjected to ribonucleic acid (RNA) extraction, followed by quantitative reverse transcriptase (RT) polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Plasma viral load level of 32 and 58 samples from ART-naive and experienced individuals, respectively, were successfully measure. Results: The presence of major HIV drug resistance mutations (HIVDRMs) and the number of ARV affected were significantly contributed to higher VL among ART-experienced individuals, while tuberculosis (TB) co-infection, body mass index (BMI), and WHO clinical stage were significantly cause higher VL among ART-naive individuals. Conclusion: Different factors affect the VL of ART- experienced and naive individuals; thus, appropriate recommendation needs to be tailored in order to help PLHIV to achieve adequate viral suppression.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)111-115
Number of pages5
JournalMalaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2023


  • Bali
  • HIV
  • Indonesia
  • antiretroviral therapy
  • viral load


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