Fabrication and characterization of rGO-SnO2 nanocomposite for electrochemical sensor of ciprofloxacin

Prastika Krisma Jiwanti, Dewi Kartika Azizah Sukardi, Anis Puspita Sari, Mai Tomisaki, Siti Wafiroh, Sri Hartati, Arramel, Yew Hoong Wong, Pei Meng Woi, Joon Ching Juan

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1 Citation (Scopus)


The uncontrolled use of ciprofloxacin (CIP) has led to increased resistance in patients and potential health issues such as kidney disorders, digestive disorder, and liver complications. This study addresses these concerns by introducing an innovative electrochemical sensor utilizing a screen-printed electrode (SPE) enhanced with a novel rGO-SnO2 nanocomposite for the precise monitoring of CIP concentration. Through square wave voltammetry (SWV), this sensor demonstrates unparalleled sensitivity and accuracy in determining CIP levels. These analyses validated the superior performance of the SPE/rGO-SnO2 electrode, revealing CIP potential range of 0.85–1.50 V with irreversible oxidation reaction and an exceptional signal-to-background (S/B) ratio of 1.91, surpassing the 1.21 ratio achieved by the SPE/rGO electrode. The SPE/rGO-SnO2 electrode also exhibited the highest active surface area (0.0252 cm2), facilitating faster transfer electron. Crucially, the SPE/rGO-SnO2 electrode exhibited an impressively low limit of detection (LOD) at 2.03 μM within a concentration range of 30–100 μM for CIP, setting a new benchmark for sensitivity (9.348 μA/μM) in CIP detection. The %RSD value was less than 5 % indicating that this modified electrodes exhibit good precision and stability. The real-world applicability of this developed methods was exemplified through its successful implementation in the analysis of river water and milk, achieving remarkable recovery rates of 101.2 % and 97.7 %, respectively. Consequently, the SPE modified with rGO-SnO2 nanocomposite emerges as a highly promising and effective tool for precise and sensitive CIP measurement, offering unparalleled performance metrics and opening avenues for enhanced environmental and health monitoring.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100276
JournalSensors International
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2024


  • Ciprofloxacin
  • Electrochemical sensor
  • Human & health
  • Screen printed electrode
  • rGO-SnO


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