Fabrication and characterization of bovine hydroxyapatite-gelatin-alendronate scaffold cross-linked by glutaraldehyde for bone regeneration

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Alendronate are widely used in the treatment of bone disorders characterized by inhibit osteoclast-mediated bone resorption such as Paget's disease, fibrous dysplasia, myeloma, bone metastases and osteoporosis. In recent studies alendronate improves proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, thereby facilitating for bone regeneration. The disadvantages of this class are their poor bioavailability and side effects on oral and intravenous application such as stomach irritation and osteonecrosis in jaw. Thus, local treatment of alendronate is needed in order to achieve high concentration of drug. Bovine hydroxyapatite-gelatin scaffold with alendronate was studied. Glutaraldehyde was used as cross-linking agent, increase the characteristics of this scaffold. The objectives of this study were to manufacture and characterize alendronate scaffold using bovine hydroxyapatite-gelatin and crosslinked by glutaraldehyde. Preparation of cross-linked bovine hydroxyapatite-gelatin and alendronate scaffold with different concentration of glutaraldehyde (0.00, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00%). The scaffolds were characterized for compressive strength, porosity, density, swelling ratio, in vitro degradation, and cytotoxicity (the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay, shorted as MTT assay). Bovine hydroxyapatite-gelatin-alendronate scaffold cross-linked with glutaraldehyde showed lower density than without glutaraldehyde. As glutaraldehyde concentration increased, porosity also increased. Eventually, it reduced compressive strength. Swelling ratio and in vitro degradation was negatively dependent on glutaraldehyde concentration. In addition, the scaffold has a good safety by MTT assay. Bovine hydroxyapatite-gelatin-alendronate scaffold was fabricated with various concentrations of glutaraldehyde. The presence of glutaraldehyde on bovine hydroxyapatite-gelatin-alendronate is safe and suitable candidate scaffold for bone regeneration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)555-560
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2021


  • alendronate
  • bovine hydroxyapatite
  • gelatin
  • glutaraldehyde
  • scaffold; neglected disease


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