Extra-modification of zirconium dioxide for potential photocatalytic applications towards environmental remediation: A critical review

N. S. Hassan, A. A. Jalil, N. F. Khusnun, M. B. Bahari, I. Hussain, M. L. Firmansyah, R. E. Nugraha, Rajendran Saravanan Rajendran

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Photocatalytic degradation is a valuable direction for eliminating organic pollutants in the environment because of its exceptional catalytic activity and low energy requirements. As one of the prospective photocatalysts, zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) is a promising candidate for photoactivity due to its favorable redox potential and higher chemical stability. ZrO2 has a high rate of electron-hole recombination and poor light-harvesting capabilities. Still, modification has demonstrated enhancements, especially extra-modification, and is therefore worthy of investigation. This present review provides a comprehensive overview of the extra-modifications of ZrO2 for enhanced photocatalytic performance, including coupling with other semiconductors, doping with metal, non-metal, and co-doping with metal and non-metal. The extra-modified ZrO2 showed superior performance in degrading the organic pollutant, particularly dyes and phenolic compounds. Interestingly, this review also briefly highlighted the probable mechanisms of the extra-modification of ZrO2 such as p-n heterojunction, type II heterojunction, and Z-scheme heterojunction. The latter heterojunction with excellent electron-hole space separation improved the photoactivity. Extensive research on ZrO2's photocatalytic potential is presented, including the removal of heavy metals, the redox of heavy metals and organic pollutants, and the evolution of hydrogen. Modified ZrO2's photocatalytic effectiveness depends on its band position, oxygen vacancy concentration, and metal defect sites. The opportunities and future problems of the extra-modified ZrO2 photocatalyst are also discussed. This review aims to share knowledge regarding extra-modified ZrO2 photocatalysts and inspire new environmental remediation applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number116869
JournalJournal of Environmental Management
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2023


  • Environmental
  • Extra- modification
  • Photocatalysis
  • Remediation
  • Zirconium dioxide


Dive into the research topics of 'Extra-modification of zirconium dioxide for potential photocatalytic applications towards environmental remediation: A critical review'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this