Expression of VEGF and BMP-2 in Osteoblast cells exposed to a combination of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and hydroxyapatite (HAp)

Claudia Michelle Darjanki, Jonathan Steven Hananta, Chiquita Prahasanti, Noer Ulfah, Banun Kusumawardani, I. Komang Evan Wijaksana, Mohammed Aljunaid, Anord Nkuba

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Objectives: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) has been widely used, but it has several fallback properties in its interaction with bone tissue, so the addition of hydroxyapatite (HAp) material aims to improve the biocompatibility, regeneration process, and osteointegration of bone implants. The HAp material can be sourced from bovine bone and processed through Good Manufacturing Practice from Tissue Bank (HApGMP), and from limestone (CaCO3) processed by Balai Besar Keramik (HApBBK). This study was to observe the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) in cultured osteoblasts exposed to PMMA-HApGMP and PMMA-HApBBK as implant candidate materials. Methods: Sample of PMMA and HAp materials with a mixture of PMMA and HApBBK in the first group and a mixture of PMMA and HApGMP in the second group. Twenty-four fetal rat calvarie osteoblast cell cultures were randomly divided into 6 groups: 7- and 14-day control group, 7 and 14 days PMMA-HApGMP group, 7 and 14 days PMMA-HApBBK group. The expression of VEGF and BMP-2 was seen by immunocytochemical examination. Results: The one-way ANOVA with a significance value of 0.000 (p < 0.05). BMP-2 and VEGF expression was increased in the 7- and 14-days groups after exposure to PMMA-HApGMP and PMMA-HApBBK. Conclusion: The application of PMMA-HApGMP and PMMA-HApBBK showed an increase in the expression of VEGF and BMP-2 in osteoblast cell cultures which indicates a potential increase in the accelerated angiogenesis and osteogenesis in the bone regeneration process of bone implants.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)243-248
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2023


  • BMP-2
  • Dental implant
  • Hydroxyapatite
  • PMMA-HAp
  • Polymethylmethacrylate
  • VEGF


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