Exploring the genetic diversity: A review of germplasm in Nigerian indigenous goat breeds

Adeyinka Oye Akintunde, Imam Mustofa, Lois Chidinma Ndubuisi-Ogbonna, Oluwafunmike Omowunmi Oyekale, Bolatito Adenike Shobo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Nigeria is home to a wide variety of indigenous goat breeds, each of which has evolved to fit its particular environment and is an important genetic resource. Indigenous goat production is intertwined with the lifestyle of Nigerians. The Nigerian livestock industry employs the bulk of the rural work-force, and indigenous goat breeds are abundant in the industry. These breeds are distributed across the diverse agro-ecological production systems, and are carriers of unique and responsive genotypes shaped by the needs of their managers. Despite their unique features, most indigenous goat breeds are characteristically low in production and productivity. Improvement of these breeds represents a logical starting point for improving food security and agricultural productivity in Nigeria. To better understand natural genetic diversity in the indigenous goat breeds and strategies for improvement, better genetic characterization is required. For conservation of Nigeria indigenous goats’ breeds germplasm and subsequent improvements; livestock preservation, frozen semen and frozen embryos approaches should be employed. Short tandem repeats (STRs), simple sequence repeats (SSR), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and microsatellite makers are suitable for molecular characterization of goat germplasm. However, the conservation of the Nigerian breeds of goats’ germplasm are valuable towards improvement and specialization without losing the valuable qualitative and quantitative traits especially adaptability and disease resistance. The germplasm conservation techniques will be valuable in the pursuit of selection for increased production, but the application of the various tools for livestock improvement is constrained by a variety of limitations. The focus of this paper is to elucidate the potential of the genetic diversity by the conservation of their germplasms as a tool for genetic improvement of indigenous goats. Germplasm of indigenous goat breeds from Nigeria was examined in this thorough review, emphasizing their significance, genetic traits, difficulties, and potential for sustainable agriculture and conservation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number107236
JournalSmall Ruminant Research
Publication statusPublished - May 2024


  • Adaptation
  • Food security
  • Genetic diversity
  • Genetic improvement
  • Nigerian Indigenous goat breeds


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