Exchange rate volatility and trade flows in Indonesia and ten main trade partners: asymmetric effects

Unggul Heriqbaldi, Miguel Angel Esquivias, Rossanto Dwi Handoyo, Alfira Cahyaning Rifami, Hilda Rohmawati

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: This paper aims to examine whether Indonesian cross-border trade responds asymmetrically to exchange rate volatility (ERV). Design/methodology/approach: An exponential generalized autorgressive conditional heteroscedasticity model is applied to estimate the ERV of Indonesia and ten main trade partners using quarterly data from 2006 to 2020. A nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag estimation is applied to estimate the impact of ERV on cross-border trade. Impacts from the global financial crisis (GFC) of 2008 and the COVID-19 pandemic are covered. Dynamic panel data is used for the robustness test. Findings: In the short-run, ERV significantly affects exports to most of the top partners (positively, negatively or both). In the long run, asymmetric effects occur in Indonesia’s exports to five top destinations. The weakening of the Indonesian Rupiah mainly supports exports in the short term. Imports from top partners are also affected by ERV in both the short run and, to a lesser extent, in the long run. Both the GFC and the COVID-19 pandemic reduced trade: for most cases, in the short run. The dynamic panel model suggests that ERV has asymmetric impact on cross-border trade in the long run. Practical implications: Exchange rate strategies need to avoid a single-side policy approach and, instead, account for exporter and importer differences in risk behaviour and an asymmetric response to ERV in trade. Policymakers need to consider policies that stabilise the currency. Originality/value: This study provides evidence that cross-border trade can react asymmetrically to the exchange rate uncertainty and that the impacts of real ERV are asymmetric as well. The authors also apply a dynamic panel that signals that ERV matters in the long run for Indonesian trade with top partners.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)708-739
Number of pages32
JournalStudies in Economics and Finance
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 22 Aug 2023


  • Asymmetric effects
  • Exchange rate volatility
  • Exchange rates
  • Global trade
  • Indonesia
  • Nonlinear ARDL


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