Evaluating the pressure and loss behavior in water pipes using smart mathematical modelling

Wahid Ali Hamood Altowayti, Norzila Othman, Husnul Azan Tajarudin, Arafat Al-Dhaqm, Syazwani Mohd Asharuddin, Adel Al-Gheethi, Abdullah Faisal Alshalif, Ali Ahmed Salem, Mohd Fadhil Md Din, Nurina Fitriani, Faris Ali Hamood Al-Towayti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Due to the constant need to enhance water supply sources, water operators are searching for solutions to maintain water quality through leakage protection. The capability to monitor the day-to-day water supply management is one of the most significant operational challenges for water companies. These companies are looking for ways to predict how to improve their supply operations in order to remain competitive, given the rising demand. This work focuses on the mathematical modeling of water flow and losses through leak openings in the smart pipe system. The research introduces smart mathematical models that water companies may use to predict water flow, losses, and performance, thereby allowing issues and challenges to be effectively managed. So far, most of the modeling work in water operations has been based on empirical data rather than mathematically described process relationships, which is addressed in this study. Moreover, partial submersion had a power relationship, but a total immersion was more likely to have a linear power relationship. It was discovered in the experiment that the laminar flows had Reynolds numbers smaller than 2000. However, when testing with transitional flows, Reynolds numbers were in the range of 2000 to 4000. Furthermore, tests with turbulent flow revealed that the Reynolds number was more than 4000. Consequently, the main loss in a 30 mm diameter pipe was 0.25 m, whereas it was 0.01 m in a 20 mm diameter pipe. However, the fitting pipe had a minor loss of 0.005 m, whereas the bending pipe had a loss of 0.015 m. Consequently, mathematical models are required to describe, forecast, and regulate the complex relationships between water flow and losses, which is a concept that water supply companies are familiar with. Therefore, these models can assist in designing and operating water processes, allowing for improved day-to-day performance management.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3500
JournalWater (Switzerland)
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2021


  • Mathematical modeling
  • Smart water management
  • Water distribution
  • Water losses


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