Evaluating the hydrophilic antioxidant capacity in different citrus genotypes

Trias Mahmudiono, Dmitry Olegovich Bokov, Marwan Mahmood Saleh, Shehla Shoukat, Mustafa Zuhair Mahmoud, Ghulam Yasin, Abed Jawad Kadhim, Saima Noor, Zaid Shaker Al-Mawlawi, Mustafa Mohammed Kadhim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Antioxidants are the body’s defense system against the damage caused by reactive oxygen species, formed naturally during many physiological activities. In vegetables and fruits, various antioxidant compounds such as vitamin C, polyphenols, flavonoids, and carotenoids have been identified. Because fruits and vegetables are the primary antioxidant sources in our daily diet, it is necessary to determine their antioxidant capacity. Citrus fruit consumption per capita has steadily increased over the world over the last 30 years. Citrus fruits are high in vitamin C as well as other active ingredients like phenols and flavonoids that are beneficial to human health. Using carotenoid complement and pigmentation genetic diversity, the objective of this research was to see how vitamin C and carotenoids contributed to the capacity of hydrophilic antioxidants of the citrus fruits’ pulp. Six citrus cultivars were chosen for this purpose: two sweet orange genotypes, Valencia Ruby and Valencia Late; two grapefruit genotypes, Star Ruby and Marsh; and two mandarin genotypes, Nadorcott and Clemenules. In proportion to their color singularity, total carotenoid composition and content in fruit pulp differed dramatically. A good and clear connection was found between hydrophilic antioxidant capacity and vitamin C concentration in the pulp of various fruit species, as measured by DPPH and ABTS tests. The proportion of vitamin C to the total HAC was calculated to be between 15% and 30%.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere03722
JournalFood Science and Technology
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • antioxidant capacity
  • carotenoids
  • citrus fruit
  • vitamin C


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