Genetic information is not transmitted solely by DNA but by the epigenetics process. Epigenetics describes molecular missing link pathways that could bridge the gap between the genetic background and environmental risk factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Specific epigenetic patterns, especially DNA methylation, histone modifications, long non-coding, and microRNA (miRNAs), affect the endophenotypes underlying the development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Among all the epigenetic marks, DNA methylation modifications have been the most widely studied in IPF. This review summarizes the current knowledge concerning DNA methylation changes in pulmonary fibrosis and demonstrates a promising novel epigenetics-based precision medicine.
- DNA methylation
- chronic pulmonary diseases
- histone modification
- idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
- long noncoding