Background: Ruptured arteriovenous malformations (AVM) hold a larger proportion as the cause of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage in children compared to those in adults. Although surgical excision still remains as the gold standard therapy for arteriovenous malformations, some smaller ones are reported to resolve from embolization alone. However, difficulty arises when small arteriovenous malformations are not detected on certain diagnostic modalities such as Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA), giving rise to false negatives, which may compromise appropriate management of patients. Endovascular embolization can be used as alternative options as diagnostic and therapy for invisible arteriovenous malformation in children. We report two cases of ruptured paediatrics arteriovenous malformations with a complication of hydrocephalus, managed with endovascular embolization and a cerebrospinal fluid diversionary procedure. Case description: We report 2 case in from Dr. Soetomo academic general hospital in 2021, the first case was a fully conscious 6-year-old-female child with sudden left-sided weakness and severe headache in January, and the second case a 9-year-old female came with decreased consciousness in May. Both had evidence of intracerebral hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage, and hydrocephalus on head radiological examination, but no visible vascular malformations on Computed Tomography Angiography. The first patient was treated with extra ventricular drainage initially, while the second case was not. Transfemoral cerebral angiography revealed small arteriovenous malformations in both patients, and both had successful endovascular embolization afterwards. The first case was shunt-free, while the second case had her drainage switched to ventriculoperitoneal shunt right after the embolization procedure. Both patients recovered fully without complications and sequelae, and were discharged afterwards. Discussion: Both patients did not undergo surgical resection of the arteriovenous malformations; the first case only underwent endovascular embolization, while the second case underwent embolization and ventriculoperitoneal shunting. The cases described here help highlight the irreplaceable role of Transfemoral Cerebral Angiography as a gold standard for cases for arteriovenous malformations compared to other modalities, such as Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA). Smaller arteriovenous malformations in paediatrics are reported to achieve complete radiological resolution, and cerebrospinal fluid diversion in hydrocephalic cases are not always performed. Several factors to be considered include initial consciousness and severity of neurological deficit, which were taken into account in the management of our patients. Conclusion: Embolization procedures may be beneficial in some pediatric arteriovenous malformations, preferably in smaller ones that undetectable by angiography. Several factors such as the consciousness and neurological deficit upon initial presentation may help in the decision making of these cases.
- Endovascular embolization
- Pediatric arteriovenous malformations
- Pediatric embolization
- Transfemoral cerebral angiography