Efficiency of botryococcus sp. In photobioreactor treatment system for nutrient removal from greywater

Anwaruddin Wurochekke, Radin Maya Saphira Radin Mohamed, Adel Al-Gheethi, Nurina Fitriani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Direct discharge of household bathroom greywater into drains is one of the main causes of eutrophication in natural water bodies. The current work aimed to study the removal of nutrients 3+ (ammonium, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, and orthophosphate [PO4 ]) from greywater (collected from four houses) by phycoremediation process using Botryococcus sp. in a photobioreactor. A laborato-ry-scale greywater treatment system was set up by using a photobioreactor tank with Botryococcus sp., and the treatment process was conducted at ambient temperature of 25°C–35°C for 21 d. The results reveal that greywater has pH between 6.1 and 8.27, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 ) and chemical oxygen demand values in the range from 46 to 199 mg/L and from 76 to 438 mg/L respec-tively, and total suspended solids ranged from 29 to 245 mg/L. NO3 –N ranged from 1.03 to 7.54 mg/L 3+ and PO4 ranged from 0.12 to 22.7 mg/L. The maximum growth of Botryococcus sp. with an initial inoculum of 105 cell/mL was between 6 to 8 d (1.96 × 106 cell/mL). Meanwhile, an initial inoculation of 106 cell/mL resulted in maximum growth after 7 d (2.89 × 107 cell/mL) in greywater collected from House A. The removal of ammonium by Botryococcus sp. reached 87% from greywater in House A after 21 d and 77% from greywater in House D. In contrast, the total Kjeldahl nitrogen removal was 99.7% and the removal of PO4 –P was 78.7%. These results prove the efficiency of Botryococcus sp. in NO3 –N and PO4 –P removal from greywater. It can be concluded that the photobioreactor with Botryococcus sp. used in the present study exhibited an efficiency for removing the nutrients from bathroom greywater.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)336-345
Number of pages10
JournalDesalination and Water Treatment
Publication statusPublished - May 2021


  • Botryococcus sp
  • Microalgae
  • Personal care products
  • Photobioreactor
  • Phycoremediation


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