4 Citations (Scopus)


Currently, Canine coronavirus (CCoV) is an enteric pathogen of the Alphacoronavirus-1 species that causes mild to severe diarrhea in puppies. The pathogenesis of this infection will cause severe lymphopenia and lead to death in puppies. This study aimed to determine the administration of probiotics on TNF-α expression, histological findings of the liver and lung in mice infected with CCoV. A total of 28 mice were randomly assigned into seven treatment groups, i.e. (C-) placebo; (C+) active CCoV vaccine induction; (T1) CCov + Isopronosin; (T2) CCoV + Lactobacillus acidophilus probiotic; (T3) CCoV + Lactobacillus Acidophylus and Bifidobacterium probiotics; (T4) CCoV + colustrum fermentation probiotic; (T5) CCoV + ginger, turmeric and ginger probiotics. Thereafter, the expression of TNF-α in the duodenum was stained using immunohistochemistry, liver and lung were stained using hematoxylin eosin. The data were analyzed using the ANOVA test followed by the Tukey test with a significance level (p<0.05). TNF-α expression on T4 and T5 decreased significantly (p<0.05) compared to C+, T1, T2 and T3. Histologic findings of the liver in the C- and T4 groups showed normal features in the central vein. On the other hand, glycogen accumulation was found in hepatocyte cells, hemorrhage with sinusoid dilation, lymphocyte infiltration in centro lobular area in group C+. Lung histology showed normal features of sinusoids and alveolar septa in groups C- and T4. Meanwhile, intra-alveolar hemorrhage was found with neutrophil cell infiltration and fibrin plasma accumulation in group C+. In conclusion, colostrum fermentation probiotics can reduce TNF-α expression in the duodenum and improve the liver and lung physiology in mice infected with CCoV.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)591-597
Number of pages7
JournalPharmacognosy Journal
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - May 2022


  • Biodiversity
  • Canine coronavirus
  • Liver
  • Lung
  • Probiotic
  • TNF-α


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