Background: To determine the neuroprotective effect of CSF drainage by analyzing its impact on the expression and the ratio of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the subventricular zone in kaolin-induced hydrocephalic rats. Method: Sprague-Dawley rats of 23 weeks of age (n=36) were used in this study. The rats were randomly divided into normal control, hydrocephalus, and CSF drainage-treated groups. Hydrocephalus was obtained by injecting 0,05 cc of 20% kaolin suspension into the cisterna magna. The CSF drainage-treated group had ventricular tapping seven days after kaolin induction. The rats were sacrificed 7, 14, or 21 days after kaolin induction. The brain was removed and prepared for immunohistochemistry analysis to detect IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 cytokines expression. Results: Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was significantly increased in hydrocephalus groups than in the control group. In contrast, the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine was significantly decreased. CSF drainage had a neuroprotective effect by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and increasing anti-inflammatory cytokine expression. In the hydrocephalus group, the ratios of IL-1β/IL-10, IL-6/IL-10, and TNF-α/IL-10 increased toward a pro-inflammatory status. After CSF drainage, the ratios of IL-1β/IL-10, IL-6/IL-10, and TNF-α/IL-10 shifted toward an anti-inflammatory status. Conclusion: CSF drainage protects the brain from excessive neuroinflammatory processes in kaolin-induced hydrocephalic rats. Additional investigation is warranted to ascertain the use of inflammatory cytokines expression as a valuable biomarker for hydrocephalus. Furthermore, research on anti-inflammatory drug administration in clinical settings is required.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)20-27
Number of pages8
JournalPharmacognosy Journal
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2024


  • Kaolin-induced hydrocephalus
  • cerebrospinal fluid drainage
  • cytokines
  • neuroinflammation
  • neuroprotective
  • subventricular zone


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