Effectiveness of telehealth interventions among traumatic brain injury survivors: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Ira Suarilah, Hakim Zulkarnain, Ita Daryanti Saragih, Bih O. Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Brain damage is associated with physical and psychological difficulties among TBI survivors. Diverse face-to-face and telehealth programs exist to help survivors cope with these burdens. However, the effectiveness of telehealth interventions among TBI survivors remains inconclusive. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized control trials were conducted. Relevant full-text articles were retrieved from seven databases, from database inception to January 2022, including Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane, MEDLINE, PubMed, and Web of Science. Bias was assessed with the revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials. A meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model to calculate the pooled effect size of telehealth interventions for TBI survivors. STATA 16.0 was used for statistical analysis. Results: In total, 17 studies (N = 3158) applying telehealth interventions among TBI survivors were included in the analysis. Telehealth interventions decreased neurobehavioural symptom (standardized mean difference: −0.13; 95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.36 to 0.10), reduce depression (standardized mean difference: −0.32; 95% CI: −0.79 to 0.14), and increase symptom management self-efficacy (standardized mean difference: 0.22; 95% CI: 0.02–0.42). Discussion: Telehealth interventions are promising avenues for healthcare delivery due to advances in technology and information. Telehealth programs may represent windows of opportunity, combining traditional treatment with rehabilitation to increase symptom management self-efficacy among TBI patients during recovery. Future telehealth programs can focus on developing the contents of telehealth modules based on evidence from this study.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Telemedicine and Telecare
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2022


  • Traumatic brain injury
  • health outcomes
  • meta-analysis
  • telehealth


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