Effect of Socioeconomic Status on Teeth and Dental Care – Evidence from a Population-based Study in Indonesia

Ninuk Hariyani, Dini Setyowati, Stefan Listl, Rahul Nair

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Purpose: Education is well-known as a determinant of oral health and dental behaviours in high-income countries, but much less is known for countries with lower incomes. This study aimed to identify the extent to which education affects oral health and dental behaviours in Indonesia. Materials and Methods: This study used data from the Indonesian Basic Health Survey 2013. From this nationally representative sample of 945,057 people 5–100 years old, a series of mixed-effects Poisson regression models that accounted for sampling weights estimated the effect of educational attainment on edentulism, dental care utilisation, and toothbrushing behaviour. Results: Consistent educational gradients were found for all outcomes and across all model specifications. People without a formal educational degree had a 1.03 (95% CI: 1.03–1.04) times higher risk of not utilising any dental care, a 3.15 (95% CI: 2.47–4.02) times higher risk of being edentulous, and a 15.6 (95% CI: 12.76–19.02) times higher risk of having low toothbrushing frequency than people having a university degree or higher. Conclusions: Stark and consistent educational gradients were observed in the dentate status, dental services utilisation, and toothbrushing in Indonesia. Educational inequalities were much larger for toothbrushing behaviours than for dental care utilisation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)77-82
Number of pages6
JournalOral health & preventive dentistry
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • dental service utilisation
  • edentulism
  • educational inequality
  • population-based study
  • toothbrushing frequency


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