Background: Traumatic brain injury is one of the most common forms of trauma and causes significant morbidity and mortality. Kencur (Kaempferia galanga L.) ethanolic extract is known to contain substances that could theoretically inhibit unfavourable cellular processes, including oxidative stress and inflammation. This research aimed to study Kencur’s anti-apoptosis activity through the inhibition of caspase-3. Methods: This is a true experimental post-test-only group design study, using male Wistar rats (Ratus novergicus) with weight-drop-induced traumatic brain injury. The subjects in this study were divided into four groups: two Control groups (Groups A and B) and two Therapy groups (Groups C and D). Groups C and D differed in the dose of Kencur ethanolic extract administered (600 mg/kgBW/day and 1,200 mg/kgBW/day, respectively). The Therapy groups were then subdivided into those receiving therapy for 24 h (C-24 and D-24) and those receiving therapy for 48 h (C-48 and D-48). Caspase-3 expression in brain tissue was evaluated at the end of the therapy using immunohistochemistry. All groups were subjected to a Kruskal-Wallis comparison test and the investigation continued with a Mann-Whitney U test to compare the two groups. Results: In traumatic brain injury rat models treated with Kaempferia galanga L. ethanolic extract at doses of 1,200 mg/kgBW/day within 48 h of therapy (D-48) compared to those who were not treated, there was a significant change in the cerebral expression of caspase-3 (P = 0.016). There was also a significant difference between the two doses of intervention (C-24 at 600 mg/kgBW/day and D-48 at 1,200 mg/kgBW/day; P = 0.016). Conclusion: With a minimum of 48 h of treatment split into two doses, Kencur (Kaempferia galanga L.) ethanolic extract can decrease caspase-3 expression in rats with traumatic brain injury.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)43-51
Number of pages9
JournalMalaysian Journal of Medical Sciences
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2024


  • apoptosis
  • caspase-3
  • Kaempferia galanga L
  • Kencur
  • traditional medicine
  • traumatic brain injury


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