Effect of food containing high fe (Iron) intake to urinary trans, trans-muconic acid (Tt-ma) levels on workers exposed to benzene

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Glue is one of important material in the footwear manufacture which is contained benzene. Benzene vapour can enter body through the respiratory tract easily. Benzene is going to metabolism by CYP 2E1 in the liver to form trans, trans muconic acid (tt-MA) and going to excrete simultaneously with urine. Before formed tt-MA, benzene is oxidized to an epoxy benzene and benzene oxepin which are electrophilic. It can cause cancer by DNA adduct. The increase of the rate of benzene metabolism can increase tt-MA formation and reduce the risk of DNA adducts. Benzene metabolism can be enhanced by increasing Fe intake. The study aims to analyze the effect of high dietary intake of Fe with the concentration of urinary trans, trans-muconic acid (tt-MA) in the shoe worker. Pre-experimental study with one group pretest posttest design was conducted and 19 subjects of this study recruited who had fulfilled the inclusion criteria.Worker characteristics (age, sex, and residence), nutritional status (body mass index), activity pattern (exposure time, exposure frequency and smoking habit), Fe absorption inhibitor consumption and benzene air level were identified. Urinary tt-MA measurement performed twice, before and after intervention. The intervention was giving meal containing high Fe for 56 hours (3 times/day). Weighing leftovers and recall Fe absorption inhibitor consumption was conducted in the end of every meal time. The study result showed that Fe intake from meat had effect on alteration of urinary tt-MA level (p<α), while Fe intake from staple food, vegetables, eggs and nuts had no effect on alteration of urinary tt-MA level (p>α).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)53-57
Number of pages5
JournalIndian Journal of Public Health Research and Development
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2018


  • Benzene
  • Fe
  • Shoe Worker
  • Tt-MA


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