Ecological impacts of ballast water loading and discharge: insight into the toxicity and accumulation of disinfection by-products

Setyo Budi Kurniawan, Dwi Sasmita Aji Pambudi, Mahasin Maulana Ahmad, Benedicta Dian Alfanda, Muhammad Fauzul Imron, Siti Rozaimah Sheikh Abdullah

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Since the implementation of the International Maritime Organization 2004 regulation, most ships have been equipped with on-dock ballast water treatment. While this method is effective in solving the invasive alien species problem, concerns are raised due to the potential release of disinfection by-products (DBPs) as the result of the chemical treatment. This review paper aims to summarize the history of ballast water management (BWM) and the currently used on-dock technology. Chlorination, oxidation, and ozonation are highlighted as the most currently applied methods to treat ballast water on-dock. This paper then focuses on the potential release of toxic DBPs as the result of the selected corresponding treatment methods. Tri-halo methane, haloacetic acid, and several acetic acid-related compounds are emphasized as toxic DBPs with concentrations reaching more than 10 μg/L. The potential toxicities of DBPs, including acute toxicity, carcinogenicity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity, to aquatic organisms, are then discussed in detail. Future research directions related to the advanced treatment of DBPs before final discharge and analysis of DBPs in coastal sediments, which are barely studied at present, are suggested to enhance the current knowledge on the fate and the ecological impact of BWM.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere09107
JournalHeliyon
Volume8
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022

Keywords

  • Cargo
  • Environmental pollution
  • Marine pollution
  • Ship
  • Toxin
  • Transportation

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