Drivers of and Barriers to COVID-19 Vaccine Booster Dose Acceptance in Indonesia

Harapan Harapan, Raisha Fathima, Hendrix Indra Kusuma, Samsul Anwar, Widhy Yudistira Nalapraya, Adityo Wibowo, Ketut Dewi Kumara Wati, Ayunda Medina, Anna Hanifa Defrita, Yesi Astri, Arie Prasetyowati, Nurfarahin Nurfarahin, Afriyani Khusna, Setya Oktariana, Sarifuddin Anwar, Milza Oka Yussar, Siti Khotimah, Bahagia Willibrordus Maria Nainggolan, Putri Rizki Amalia Badri, Raden ArgariniWira Winardi, Rosaria Indah, Malik Sallam, Yogambigai Rajamoorthy, Abram L. Wagner, Mudatsir Mudatsir

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Obtaining a booster dose of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine is required to maintain the protective level of neutralizing antibodies and therefore herd immunity in the community, and the success of booster dose programs depends on public acceptance. The aim of this study was to determine the acceptance of a booster dose of COVID-19 vaccine and its drivers and barriers in Indonesia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the provinces of Indonesia between 1 and 15 August 2022. Individuals who completed the primary series of the COVID-19 vaccine were asked about their acceptance of a booster dose. Those who refused the booster dose were questioned about their reasons. A logistic regression was used to determine the determinants associated with rejection of a booster dose of COVID-19 vaccine. A total of 2935 respondents were included in the final analysis. With no information on the efficacy and safety of the COVID-19 vaccine, 95% of respondents agreed to receive a booster dose if it were provided for free by the government. This acceptance was reduced to only 50.3% if the vaccine had a 75% efficacy with a 20% chance of side effects. The adjusted logistic regression analysis indicated that there were eight factors associated with the rejection of the booster dose: age, marital status, religion, occupation, type of the first two vaccines received, knowledge regarding the importance of the booster dose, belief that natural immunity is sufficient to prevent COVID-19 and disbelief in the effectiveness of the booster dose. In conclusion, the hesitancy toward booster doses in Indonesia is influenced by some intrinsic factors such as lack of knowledge on the benefits of the booster dose, worries regarding the unexpected side effects and concerns about the halal status of the provided vaccines and extrinsic determinants such as the effectiveness and safety of the vaccine. These findings suggest the need for more campaigns and promotions regarding the booster dose benefits to increase its acceptance.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1981
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • COVID-19
  • booster dose
  • vaccine acceptance
  • vaccine hesitancy
  • vaccine rejection
  • vaccine reluctance
  • vaccine resistance


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