Does on-line learning affect to achieve the minimal competencies of entry level pharmacists in Indonesia?

Agung Endro Nugroho, Dyah Aryani Perwitasari, Umi Athiyah, Daryono Hadi Tjahjono, Ajeng Diantini, Yandi Syukri, Shirly Kumala, Dwi Sulisworo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The closure of educational institutions to reduce the impact of the spread of COVID-19 has brought about a change in the education administration. Shifting the face-to-face learning process to an online learning system is one method to overcome this impact. The present study aims to assess the relationship between the online learning process and the achievement of graduate competence. The study was conducted by sharing the Constructive Online Learning Environment Survey (COLLES) questionnaire, which involved 626 responses from 49 schools of pharmacy in Indonesia to the graduates and re-taker of the Pharmacy Profession Program. This questionnaire has 24 items with six domains: relevance, reflection, interactivity, tutor support, peer support, and interpretation. The data were descriptively analyzed, and to find the correlation, the Student-T test was applied. This study showed that the highest score of the Constructive Online Learning Environment Survey (COLLES) domain is relevance (4.01). The lowest score can be seen in interactivity and teacher support. There are no significant differences in COLLES domains between graduates and re-taker groups. These findings also showed that the graduates' GPA significantly influences the student study success. It can be concluded that online learning during the pandemic did not influence pharmacists' achievement of minimum competency in Indonesia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)21-25
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Advanced Pharmacy Education and Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2024


  • Indonesia
  • Minimal competency
  • Online learning
  • Pharmacy


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