The release of drugs from solid drug delivery materials has been studied intently in recent years. Quantitative analyses achieved from in vitro dissolution becomes easier if a zero-order mathematical model is used. Non-gelatin nutraceutical hard-shell capsules of zero size (approximately 0.7-0.8 cm) were produced from carrageenan-based natural polymers, namely carrageenan-alginate (CA) and carrageenan-starch (CS). Disintegration, dissolution and zero-order drug release kinetics of hard-shell capsules containing 100 mg of salicylamide were studied. The disintegration time of CA and CS were observed to be less than 30 min for both CA and CS. In vitro dissolution profile showed that the percentage dissolution of CA capsules was better at pH 4.5, while that of CS was poor at pH 1.2, 4.5 and 6.8. Determination of drug release kinetics profiles of carrageenan-based hardshell capsules utilized the Noyes-Whitney and Peppas-Sahlin modification rules for zero-order. The drug release from carrageenan-based capsules followed zero-order kinetics, especially at pH 6.8, and was compared to the Higuchi model. Salicylamide in CA hard-shell capsules at a pH 6.8 had a release rate constant (kH) of 2.91 %(ppm/ ppm) min-1/2, while the release rate constant of CS was 0.36

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)226-231
Number of pages6
JournalOpen Chemistry
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2020


  • Capsule
  • Dissolution
  • Drug release kinetics
  • Salicylamide
  • k-Carrageenan


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