Dinoflagellate Cyst Assemblage, Abundance and Distribution in Three Estuaries in Bone Bay, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

Nita Rukminasari, Sapto Andriyono, Andi Aliyah Hidayani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Dinoflagellates are the main group of primary producers in freshwater and marine ecosystems. Some of these species can produce toxins (only 10% from the total species) and cause the occurrence of harmful-algal-blooms (HABs) worldwide. The purpose of this study was to examine the species assemblages, distribution, diversity, species richness, and abundance of dinoflagellate cysts in three estuaries around Bone Bay, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Thirty-six surface sediment samples were collected from the Teko, Tangka and Panyula estuaries, and dinoflagellates cysts were counted and identified. Multivariate analyses were conducted to examine species assemblages, diversity and richness. Eighteen dinoflagellate taxa from 11 genera and 8 families were identified. The three most abundant dinoflagellate species were Alexandrium minutum, Pentapharsodinium tyrrhenicum, and Scrippsiella lachrymosa. Species assemblages varied between sampling sites, there was no shifting from autotroph to heterotroph dinoflagellate cysts, and based on species richness and diversity, Bone Bay was categorized as oligotrophic. These findings indicate that cyst species could be good indicators for eutrophication and industrial pollution, even though eutrophication was not detected at the sites in Bone Bay during the research period.

Original languageEnglish
Article number19
JournalOcean Science Journal
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2024


  • Bone Bay
  • Dinoflagellate cyst
  • Distribution and assemblages
  • Indonesia


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