Introduction: Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. A high prevalence of hypertension is found in elderly women. Rural areas have different characteristics from urban areas. Therefore, it is necessary to identify risk factors for hypertension in rural and urban elderly women for optimal therapy management. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in rural (Banyuwangi district) and urban (Surabaya city) areas, East Java, Indonesia. The study was carried out in 2015-2016 in women aged ≥45 years, residing in an area for ≥10 years, and willing to collect urine for 24 hours. Respondents consisted of 54 older adults from rural areas and 51 older adults from urban areas who actively participate in the integrated healthcare center for the elderly. The independent t-test and multivariate logistic regression were used to analyze the data. Results: The prevalence of hypertension in the rural area was 27.8% and in the urban area was 37.25%. The risk factors for hypertension in the urban area were urine sodium level (AOR=1.02, 95% CI=1.001-1.04, p-value=0.043), urine potassium level (AOR=0.88, 95% CI=0.78-0.999, p-value=0.022), and Body Mass Index (AOR=1.26, 95% CI=1.06-1.49, p-value=0.008). Meanwhile, the factor associated with hypertension in the rural area was age (AOR=1.08, 95% CI=1.003-1.16, p-value=0.042). Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension in the urban area was higher than in the rural area. There were differences in risk factors for hypertension that occurred both in rural and urban areas. However, risk factors in both areas are equally important to overcome. Collaboration from multiple stakeholders and sectors is urgently needed, such as the Public Health Center, Integrated Assistance Post for Non-Communicable Diseases, and the local health office.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)407-415
Number of pages9
JournalYale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021


  • Elderly
  • Hypertension
  • Rural
  • Urban
  • Women


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