Difference of Phenotype and Genotype Between Human and Environmental: Isolated Vibrio cholerae in Surabaya, Indonesia

Kayo Osawa, Katsumi Shigemura, Koichi Kitagawa, K. Kuntaman, Ni Made Mertaniasih, Wahyu Setyarini, Dita Arizandy, Dadik Rahadjo, Ro Osawa, Toshiro Shirakawa, Masato Fujisawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Cholera due to Vibrio cholerae has been spreading worldwide, although the reports focusing on Indonesian V. cholerae are few. In this study, in order to investigate how V. cholerae transmitted to human from environment. We extended an epidemiological report that had investigated the genotype of V. cholerae isolated from human pediatric samples and environmental samples. We examined 44 strains of V. cholerae isolated from pediatric diarrhea patients and the environment such as shrimps or oysters collected in three adjacent towns in Surabaya, Indonesia. Susceptibilities were examined for 11 antibiotics. Serotype O1 or O139 genes and pathogenic genes including cholera toxin were detected. Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR were also performed to determine genetic diversity of those isolates. Serotype O1 was seen in 17 strains (38.6%) with all pathogenic genes among 44 isolates. Other isolates were non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae. Regarding antibiotic susceptibilities, those isolates from environmental samples showed resistance to ampicillin (11.4%), streptomycin (9.1%) and nalidixic acid (2.3%) but those isolates from pediatric stools showed no resistance to those 3 kinds of antibiotics. MLST revealed sequence type (ST) 69 in 17 strains (38.6%), ST198 in 3 strains (6.8%) and non-types in 24 strains (54.5%). All the ST69 strains were classified to O1 type with more than 95% similarity by ERIC-PCR, including all 6 (13.6%) isolates from environmental samples with resistance to streptomycin. In conclusion, V. cholerae O1 ST69 strains has been clonally spreading in Surabaya, exhibiting pathogenic factors and antibiotic resistance to streptomycin, especially in the isolates from environment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)230-238
Number of pages9
JournalIndian Journal of Microbiology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2020


  • Antibiotic resistance
  • Epidemiology
  • Indonesia
  • Multi-locus sequence typing
  • Vibrio cholerae


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