Purpose: This study aimed to measure supplement consumption behavior and mental health status among Indonesian adults during the second year of COVID-19. Participants and Methods: Online questionnaire regarding supplement consumption, and Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale 21 (DASS-21) was distributed from March to June 2021 and obtained 1006 valid and completed questionnaires. Descriptive and inferential analyses were conducted to determine the frequency and predictor factors of the respondents’ supplement consumption behavior and mental health status. Results: Respondents were divided into two groups, vulnerable and non-vulnerable individuals. The finding showed that 34.5% respondents were vulnerable individuals, including the elderly and those with comorbid disease(s). The vulnerable and non-vulnerable groups exhibited a high prevalence of supplement consumption, with the vulnerable group demonstrating a greater tendency for regular use. The incidence of mental health problems in both groups did not significantly differ (23–38%), where anxiety was higher than depression and stress. Supplement consumption was associated with mental health status. Several positive predicting factors for supplement consumption behavior included older age, higher economic status, and higher education. While the younger age and unmarried respondents were more likely to develop mental health problems. Conclusion: Taken together, given dietary supplement consumption increased during the pandemic and the potential associations between supplement consumption and mental health, controlling the correct information and regulation regarding supplements, especially their risks and benefits, was important. Additionally, support for mental health issues was necessary, since it might affect self-medication behavior.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1799-1811
Number of pages13
JournalPatient Preference and Adherence
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • COVID-19
  • anxiety
  • depression
  • mental health
  • minerals
  • stress
  • vitamins


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