The excess sodium (Na) intake and insufficient potassium (K) intake are frequently observed all over the world, including Indonesia. This study explored the dietary patterns of Indonesian people and evaluated their associations with Na and K intakes. Na and K intakes were assessed by repeated 24-h urine collection. The dietary patterns of the previous month were extracted by factor analysis using the Indonesian Food Frequency Questionnaire. The participants were community-dwelling Indonesian men and women (n = 479) aged 20 years and over. We identified four dietary patterns in each sex. After controlling for confounding factors, the high quantile of ‘Noodle, oil, and salty sea products’ pattern was associated with the high Na intake in both men and women (p = 0.02 and <0.001, respectively). The ‘Meat, vegetable, oil, and fruit’ pattern statistically significantly contributed to the high K intake in men (p = 0.04), but not in women (p = 0.26). The ‘Vegetable, non-oil, and milk’ pattern in men and ‘Meat, vegetable, and fruit’ pattern in women were associated with low Na:K ratios (p = 0.03 and 0.01, respectively). Neither ‘bread’ nor ‘fish’ appeared as a major determinant of any dietary patterns in this population. The ‘Noodle, oil, and salty sea products’ pattern should be avoided to reduce sodium intake.
- 24-h urine collection
- dietary pattern