Kelud is a volcano in Indonesia located between the Kediri and Blitar districts of East Java province. This volcano has erupted multiple times between the year 1000 and 2014, resulting in over 200,000 casualties. Therefore, a volcano warning system is needed to detect forthcoming eruptions to minimize the number of casualties. A warning system was developed based on sensor nodes comprising vibration, temperature and gas (sulfur and carbon dioxide) sensors to monitor physical parameters of the volcano, drone surveillance, mapping and temperature measurement, and a mobile robot carrying the same sensors as the sensor nodes for both normal and emergency situations. The system was tested on the Kelud volcano in normal condition in August 2019. The system detected 1 Hz of seismicity, under 1 ppm of sulfur and carbon dioxide, lake temperature at 23 °C to 55.3 °C, ground temperature at 32 °C, and air temperature between 23 °C and 25 °C. The system can be used for 37 hours at full operation with 1 charging cycle of the solar cell and is suitable for application in a dangerous environment.
|Journal||Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences|
|Publication status||Published - 2021|
- Fuzzy control
- Mobile robots
- Warning system