15 Citations (Scopus)


Increasing trends in food safety awareness drive consumer demands for fresher healthier diets and has led to the development of low-cost pH-sensitive indicator films to evaluate deterioration levels in fresh foods. Arrowroot starch/iota-carrageenan-based films were combined with 10, 30, 50% Kyoho skin extract (KSE) to produce indicator films with halochromic abilities. The KSE indicator films were characterized based on their physico-mechanical, functional, and crystallinity properties; thermal stability; and their pH-dependent color changes in in situ anthocyanin-based monitoring of shrimp freshness. All KSE indicator films displayed compact structure under scanning electron microscope analysis and increased tensile strength, exhibited UV–vis barrier ability, and presented low water wettability. Moreover, FTIR signaled strong hydrogen bond interactions among polymers and KSE that strengthened peak crystallinity in XRD analysis and lowered weight loss at melting temperature, which indicated thermal stability of the indicator films. Furthermore, pH-sensitivity of the indicator films integrated with natural KSE anthocyanin demonstrated color changes from purple to red under acidic conditions, purple to green in an ammonium environment, and yellow appeared in high alkaline conditions. Finally, this study demonstrated the food packaging and halochromic capacity of biopolymer-based pH-sensitivity of the KSE indicator films in real-time monitoring of shrimp at room storage temperatures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)316-327
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Publication statusPublished - 30 Jun 2022


  • Arrowroot starch
  • Food waste
  • Grape skins extract
  • Green products
  • Plastic debris
  • Smart packaging


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