Determination of reference of concentracion (Rfc) sulfur dioxide (so2 ) based on noael so2 in white rats and the body weight and height of indonesian exposed to so2

Wanda Widya Wisesa, Abdul Rohim Tualeka, Rois Solichin, Pudji Rahmawati, Syamsiar S. Russeng, Atjo Wahyu, Ahsan

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1 Citation (Scopus)


Sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) is a sharp and non-flammable gas from coal combustion activities, fuel oil power plants, copper smelting, and volcanic eruptions. The accumulation of SO2 exposure cans detriment to lung function, respiratory tract, irritation, asthma, and even causes death. This study aimed to calculate the value of RfC from SO2 exposure in communities in residential settlements around the area of Palembang’s fertilizer industry, Indonesia by using NOAEL SO2 in white rats and the weight and height of Indonesian exposed to SO2. This was an observational cross-sectional study. To analyze the data, manual quantitative analysis was made. The samples were adults and adolescents, seventeen years old or above, who had settled for more than 2 years. The variable of this research were the concentration of SO2 in the settlements around the fertilizer industry, residents’ body weight, height, respiratory rate, exposure time per day, and body surface area, weight and body surface of white rats, No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL), Animal Km, Human Km and Reference of Concentracion (RfC). The results showed that the average SO2 concentration was 0.248 mg/m3 (0.0946 ppm). This meant that it is below the threshold limit value according to PP RI No. 41 of 1999 namely 900 µg/Nm3 (0.34 ppm). However, it is approaching the highest limit permitted by Permenaker No. 5 of 2018 which stated the limit to be equal to 0.25 mg/m3 (0.095 ppm). The average SO2 RfC obtained in this study was 0.04 mg/kg. It is less than the one issued by EPA/NAAQS 2010, that is equal to 0.21 mg/kg and it means that the RfC result of this study is safer for humans than of the others. Nevertheless, the presence of SO2 around residential areas, which is almost close to TLV and can increase at any time, can bring a negative effect to public health. Therefore, continuous controlling is highly needed. It includes reducing SO2 concentration, controlling SO2 emissions and evaluating industrial activities periodically in order to maintain air quality and level of exposure so health effects can be well-controlled.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1328-1333
Number of pages6
JournalIndian Journal of Public Health Research and Development
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2019


  • Community
  • Fertilizer industri
  • RfC
  • Sulfur dioxide


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