Background: Neonatal mortality is one of the key impediments in achieving global sustainable development goals, especially in lower middle income countries (LMICs). As an LMIC with the highest reported neonatal mortality rate in Southeast Asia, Indonesia faces inequitable distribution of health facilities across the archipelago. Therefore, in this paper, we aim to evaluate the determinants of neonatal mortality rate in Indonesia to search for better strategies to overcome this problem. Methods: We conducted an analysis of the 2017 Indonesia Demographic Health Survey dataset of 10,838 live-born infants born from singleton pregnancies in 2017. Using a hierarchical approach, multivariate analysis was conducted to identify potential factors (including socioeconomic, household, and proximate determinants) that contributed to neonatal mortality. Results: The lack of participation in postnatal care [odds ratio (OR) = 20.394, p = 0.01)] and delivery complications other than prolonged labour (OR = 2.072, p = 0.02) were the maternal factors that significantly associated with increased risk of neonatal death. Regarding neonatal factors, low-birth-weight infants appeared to be more vulnerable to neonatal death (OR = 12.489, p = 0.01). Conclusion: Low participation in postnatal care, development of labour complications, and low birth weight were associated with higher neonatal mortality. It implies that in a limited resource and geographically challenging country such as Indonesia, improving the quality and optimizing services of public hospitals with equitable distribution of quality health care services in all regions should be prioritized in the efforts of reducing neonatal mortality rate.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere12980
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023


  • Determinant
  • IDHS
  • Maternal factors
  • Neonatal death


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