Background The number of caesarean section deliveries among mothers in Indonesia has increased every year. Aim This study was conducted to identify the prevalence and determinants of caesarean section in Indonesia. Methods A cross-sectional design using the 2017 Indonesian Demographic Health Survey was conducted. A total of 12 789 mothers were recruited, and bivariate analysis and binary logistic regression were used. Results The determinants among women that were significant factors in performing caesarian section deliveries were maternal age 35 years, urban residence, high level of education, poorest wealth index, having more than four visits to antenatal care centres, close proximity to health facilities and first-time birth. Conclusions The rate of caesarean section deliveries in Indonesia was 17.7%. Monitoring and evaluation of the increasing number of caesarean sections without medical necessity and the severity of labour is needed.