The presence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected individuals naive to antiretroviral therapy, may affect the effectiveness of treatment. Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia, recorded the highest number of cumulative HIV infection cases in the country. This study aimed to identify on the appearance of TDR, as well as to identify HIV-1 subtypes circulating among treatment-naive individuals in Jakarta. Whole blood samples collected from 43 HIV-1 infected, treatment-naive individuals. Viral subtyping and drug resistance testing were performed on HIV-1 pol genes amplified using nested polymerase chain reaction. CRF01_AE was detected most frequently in Jakarta (73.08%). Drug resistance-related major mutation was not detected in protease fragments of pol gene, but two major mutations, K103N (6.67%) and Y181C (6.67%), were detected in reverse transcriptase fragments of pol gene. Our results suggest that TDR was emerged in Jakarta at a certain extent, thus further surveillance study to monitor the TDR prevalence and circulating HIV-1 subtypes in this region is considered to be necessary.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8740
JournalInfectious Disease Reports
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • ART-naive individuals
  • Transmitted drug resistance


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