Objective: To survey outdoor food and beverage advertisements ('F&B adverts') for products that may be a risk factor for obesity, diabetes and CVD located in the vicinity of gathering places for children and adolescents. Design: We recorded the GPS coordinates of all F&B adverts visible from the streets at distances of 0-100, 100-300 and 300-500 m from facilities often used by children and adolescents. Those for unhealthy foods and beverages were identified. The density (number per square kilometre) of such advertisements was calculated and evaluated using hotspot analysis. Setting: The sub-districts Mulyorejo and Sukolilo in Surabaya city and the sub-districts Banyuwangi and Giri in Banyuwangi District, Indonesia. Participants: None. Results: The proportion of all outdoor advertisements that were F&B adverts was slightly higher in Banyuwangi than in Surabaya. Of the 570 F&B adverts recorded in Banyuwangi, 227 (39.8 %) and 273 (47.9 %) were for unhealthy foods and beverages, respectively. Of 960 F&B adverts in Surabaya, 271 (28.2 %) and 445 (46.3 %) were for unhealthy foods and beverages. In both regions, F&B advert density increased near gathering places for children and adolescents; all recreational areas had at least one set of advertisements for unhealthy beverages and food at 100-300 and 300-500 m. Both regions had one hotspot with significantly high numbers of unhealthy advertisements; Banyuwangi had one cold spot with a significantly low number of healthy advertisements. Conclusion: Regulations to control advertisements for unhealthy foods and beverages in areas frequented by children and adolescents are urgently needed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1066-1078
Number of pages13
JournalPublic Health Nutrition
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2021


  • Children & adolescents
  • Food & beverage
  • Non-communicable diseases
  • Outdoor advertisement
  • Spatial analysis


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