Objective: This study aims to determine the relationship among demographic, clinical characteristics, and psychosocial factors related to salivary cortisol in children with leukemia. Methods: This research was a descriptive study with a cross-sectional design. The sample was children with leukemia in Dr. Sardjito GeneralHospitalYogyakarta from January to February 2018. The sample size was 30 respondents who had met the inclusion criteria, was aged 6-18 years, did not experience an emergency condition, and did not eat and drink 30 minutes before the saliva sample was taken. Salivary samples were assessed for free cortisol levels using an ELISA kit 96 wells DES661. Results: The salivary cortisol level was in the range of 0.19 ng/dL to 16.67 ng/dL. Most of the respondents showed a high level of stress in the category of severe stress (70 %) with the Mean ± SD (of 5.2665±3.3430 ng/dL). There was no relationship between demographic and clinical characteristic factors with cortisol levels in children with leukemia (p> 0.05). Conclusion: Although this study showed that there is no relationship between salivary cortisol levels and demographic factors as well as clinical characteristics, the results indicate that there was a link between psychosocial factors and increasing salivary cortisol levels in children with leukemia. Thus, the results of this study can be the basis for hospitals and health workers to provide care strategies and interventions to help children who are at risk of experiencing psychosocial problems.