Background: The global Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is superimposed on the ongoing Multidrug-Resistant Organisms (MDROs) pandemic. Bacterial co-infection, particularly those caused by MDROs, is one of the risk factors linked to higher morbidity and mortality rates in COVID-19 patients. This study aims to compare critical priority MDROs profile causing bacteremia in COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients during a pandemic. Methods: A hospital-based retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital from April 2020 to December 2021. This study used a consecutive sampling technique, which included and analyzed all identified microorganism isolates from blood specimens that met the inclusion criteria. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare MDRO profiles between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients, which is significant if p < 0.05. Results: The total proportion of critical priority MDRO isolates in COVID-19 patients was 90/390 (23.08%), while in non-COVID-19 patients were 377/1446 (26.07%) isolates (p=0.228). Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) had a higher proportion of events in COVID-19 patients (12.05% vs. 7.05%, p < 0.001). In contrast, extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-KP) had a higher proportion of events in non-COVID patients (7.54% vs. 2.82%, p < 0.001). Acinetobacter baumannii exhibited a high level of resistance, with 149/223 (66.82%) of the isolates being CRAB, with the COVID-19 group accounting for 47/59 (79.66%) and the non-COVID-19 group accounting for 102/164 (62.19%; z = 2.438; p = 0.015). Conclusion: The high proportion and resistance rate of critical priority MDROs, CRAB particularly, among COVID-19 patients, highlights the importance of effective AMR control practices and prevention strategies during the pandemic.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)416-422
Number of pages7
JournalBali Medical Journal
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Bacteremia
  • COVID-19
  • CRAB
  • Critical Priority MDROs


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