Crafting two-dimensional materials for contrast agents, drug, and heat delivery applications through green technologies

Dwi Setyawan, Tahta Amrillah, Che Azurahanim Che Abdullah, Fasih Bintang Ilhami, Diva Meisya Maulina Dewi, Zuhra Mumtazah, Agustina Oktafiani, Fayza Putri Adila, Moch Falah Hani Putra

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The development of two-dimensional (2D) materials for biomedical applications has accelerated exponentially. Contrary to their bulk counterparts, the exceptional properties of 2D materials make them highly prospective for contrast agents for bioimage, drug, and heat delivery in biomedical treatment. Nevertheless, empty space in the integration and utilisation of 2D materials in living biological systems, potential toxicity, as well as required complicated synthesis and high-cost production limit the real application of 2D materials in those advance medical treatments. On the other hand, green technology appears to be one of strategy to shed a light on the blurred employment of 2D in medical applications, thus, with the increasing reports of green technology that promote advanced technologies, here, we compile, summarise, and synthesise information on the biomedical technology of 2D materials through green technology point of view. Beginning with a fundamental understanding, of crystal structures, the working mechanism, and novel properties, this article examines the recent development of 2D materials. As well as 2D materials made from natural and biogenic resources, a recent development in green-related synthesis was also discussed. The biotechnology and biomedical-related application constraints are also discussed. The challenges, solutions, and prospects of the so-called green 2D materials are outlined.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)369-389
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Drug Targeting
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Two-dimensional (2D)
  • biogenic
  • biomedicine
  • biotechnology
  • green synthesis


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