Cosmetics: What Do Bruneian Female Adults Believe?

Long Chiau Ming, Nur Hafizah Raudhah Azmi, Hui Poh Goh, Li Ling Chaw, Khang Wen Goh, Nahlah Elkudssiah Ismail, Ganesh Sritheran Paneerselvam, Andi Hermansyah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Objectives: The study aimed to measure the level of attitudes and the current practices of the female community in Brunei Darussalam regarding the usage of cosmetics. Methods: An online survey was conducted using a non-probabilistic snowball sampling approach via the social media channels WhatsApp and Instagram. The inclusion criteria were female Bruneian citizens or permanent residents, aged between 18 and 65 years old, who can understand English or Malay, and use cosmetic products at least once a day. Results: A total of 445 participants responded to the online survey. Most of the participants agreed that the use of cosmetic products improves one’s physical appearance to the public (391, 87.8%) and also improves self-confidence (405, 91.1%). There were significant differences in monthly cosmetic product expenses and participants’ attitudes about safe cosmetic use (p = 0.001). No significant changes in the individuals’ attitudes based on their age or educational level were observed. Overall, the participants had a good level of cosmetic safety practice. Almost half of the participants use social media to obtain information regarding what cosmetics to use or purchase. Conclusion: There is a medium to high level of attitude and a high level of practice regarding the safe use of cosmetics among Bruneian female adults. Social media was the main source of information for the respondents, followed by friend circle and family members.

Original languageEnglish
Article number10584
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number17
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022


  • cosmetology
  • gender equality
  • healthcare access
  • public health
  • sustainability and community


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