Correlation of Malocclusion with Facial Profile in Javanese Population: A Cephalometric Analysis

I. Gusti Aju Wahju Ardani, Alexander Patera Nugraha, Devani Githa Vitamamy, Shirley Gautama, Alida, Dwi Rahmawati, Intan Vallentien Dwi Hariati, Aya Dini Oase Caesar, Hashfi Raushan Aufa, Mario Raphael Sugitto, Rozita Hassan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The facial profile is directly related to facial aesthetics, which has been known to be one of the factors that can affect interpersonal relationships and self-confidence. This makes facial harmony one of the objects considered in orthodontic treatment. The stability of the occlusion function can also be reflected through the harmony of the face. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between malocclusion and facial profile shape in the Javanese population. Cephalometric analysis using cephalometric radiographs of samples met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The variables measured in this study were SNA, SNB, ANB, FMA, FMIA, IMPA, Facial Axis, Y-Axis, Facial Angle, Angle of Convexity, Angle S–N–Ba, Angle N–Ba–S, Angle Ba–S– N, SN–Mandibular Plane, SN–Maxillary Plane, SN–Occlusal Plane, FH–Mandibular Plane, FH– Maxillary Plane, FH–Occlusal Plane, Gonial Angle, Upper Gonial Angle, Lower Gonial Angle, Maxilla Length, Mandibular Length, Wits Appraisal, Point A–Nation Perpendicular Distance, Pogonion–Nation Perpendicular Distance, U1–NA Angle, and Holdaway Soft Network Analysis. The data were analyzed using a descriptive test, then the Kolmogorov-Smirnov normality test was carried out, and the correlation test was carried out with the Pearson Correlation test (p <0.05). There was a positive correlation between Holdaway Soft Tissue Analysis and Facial Axis, Facial Angle, SNA, SNB, ANB, IMPA, Wits Appraisal, U1–NA Angle. The shape of the facial profile of the Javanese population in malocclusion class I, II, and III has a convex facial profile.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)756-765
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of International Dental and Medical Research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Dentistry
  • Facial Profile
  • Malocclusion
  • Medicine
  • Orthodontics


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