Consumption patterns, energy adequacy, and the nutritional status of softball players

Ratna Candra Dewi, Bambang Wirjatmadi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Softball is a competitive sport which requires the players to have a combination of strength, speed and agility. Nutrition and hydration can have a significant impact on the performance of the softball players. The present study aimed to analyse the relationship between consumption patterns, nutritional knowledge, physical activity, and nutritional adequacy with the nutritional status of softball players. An analytic observation within a cross-sectional study design was employed on a sample of 20 softball players from Surabaya State University. The respondents were recruited through simple random sampling. The research variables included energy intake, eating frequency, vegetarian diet, caffeine or soft drink consumption, fast food consumption, food restrictions, infectious disease, nutritional knowledge, energy adequacy and nutritional status. The anthropometric measurements of the athletes were used including body weight and height, consumption pattern data using the 2x24 hours recall method and a food frequency questionnaire, physical activity data using the IPAQ (International Physical Activity Questionnaire) method, and data on knowledge and infectious diseases using a questionnaire. Energy adequacy was calculated by comparing the average energy consumption with the Nutrition Adequacy Rate. Nutritional status was measured using Body Mass Index (BMI). The data was analysed to examine the relationship between the explanatory variables and the dependent variables using the Spearman Rank Correlation Test. Energy intake, eating frequency, and the knowledge of nutrition had a positive significant correlation with energy adequacy. Physical activity was negatively correlated with energy adequacy. Infectious disease was negatively correlated with nutritional status, while energy adequacy was positively correlated with nutritional status.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1834-1839
Number of pages6
JournalIndian Journal of Public Health Research and Development
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2018


  • Athletes
  • Consumption pattern
  • Energy adequacy
  • Indonesia
  • Nutritional status


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