Background: Determination of stunting and wasting always uses the WHO growth standard in Indonesia. However, it is believed that Indonesian children are 'below' the global standard, thus the WHO standard is not reliable to present the actual prevalence. This study aims to compare the prevalence and determinants of stunting and underweight using WHO growth standard and national Indonesian growth reference. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Musi sub-district, East Nusa Tenggara province in July 2019. East Nusa Tenggara province had the highest prevalence of stunting and underweight in Indonesia. The study population were children under five, and total sampling method was used for this study. Length/height-for-age and weight-for-age were plotted using WHO standard and national Indonesian reference. Univariate and multivariate binomial logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. Results: The prevalence of stunting and underweight were higher for the WHO standard than the national reference (53.9% vs 10.7% and 29.17% vs 17.7%; all p < 0.001). After adjusted for confounding factors, when the WHO standard was used, determinants of stunting were maternal mid-upper arm circumference below 23.5cm and maternal height below 150cm; determinants of underweight were intrauterine growth restriction, young maternal age during pregnancy, and multiple parities. When the national reference was used, no determinants was found for stunting; the determinants of underweight were intrauterine growth restriction and maternal education. Conclusions: The WHO standard is not suitable for representing child growth in Musi sub-district. Future studies should be done to re-evaluate the prevalence and determinants of stunting and underweight nationwide using the national Indonesian reference.
- Growth chart
- Risk factors