Comparison of Changes in Inflammation Markers NLR, CRP, and LCR after Corticosteroid Therapy in Severe and Critical COVID-19 Patients

Laurensia Vidya Ayuningtyas, Anastasia Aliesa Hermosaningtyas, Prananda Surya Airlangga, Edward Kusuma, Arie Utariani, Christrijogo Sumartono Waloejo, Pudji Lestari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Corticosteroid, an immunomodulator agent for treating hyperinflammation, is widely used in severe and critical COVID-19 patients. This study is a retrospective observational cohort clinical study comparing changes in NLR, CRP, and LCR values with and without corticosteroid therapy in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Those samples were chosen due to widespread access and economically sound to be examined repetitively. Samples were collected by total sampling of medical records of patients admitted to the COVID-19 intensive care unit at RSUD Dr Soetomo between March 2020 to July 2021. Inclusion criteria are complete medical records of patients > 18 years with a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis with severe and/or acute symptoms according to the WHO criteria and receiving corticosteroids (dexamethasone 6 mg/24 h or equivalent dose) for a minimum of 3 days. Patients not receiving corticosteroid treatment were included in the control group. NLR, CRP, and LCR were evaluated on day-0, day-3, day-6, and day-10 after initiation of corticosteroid therapy; in the control group, their hospital admission was designated as day-0. Comorbidities, complications, and other therapies that may affect NLR, CRP, and LCR values are noted. A total of 460 patients were included in the inclusion criteria. The control group had no significant median NLR, CRP, and LCR changes during observation (p-value > 0.05). In the therapy group, there was a significant increase in NLR and LCR and a decrease in CRP (p-value < 0.0001). When compared between control and therapy groups, the median changes in NLR and CRP differed significantly (p-value < 0.05), while significant differences in LCR occurred on days 6 and 10. Corticosteroid increases NLR and LCR and decreases CRP with significant differences between groups.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7242
JournalTrends in Sciences
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2024


  • Corticosteroid
  • CRP
  • Inflammatory markers
  • LCR
  • NLR
  • Severe and critical COVID-19 patients


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