Objectives: Kidney stone in children is a recurring problem that requires multiple interventions over time. Minimally-invasive approach, such as Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy (ESWL) is recommended for moderately-sized stones. However, since ESWL is associated with multiple interventions, Micro-Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (Micro-PCNL) and Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery (RIRS) can also be considered to treat kidney stones in pediatric patients. Both approaches have their respective advantages and disadvantages. In this study, we aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of Micro-PCNL and RIRS in pediatric patients with kidney stones. Methods: This systematic review and meta-analysis adhered to the PRISMA guideline and Cochrane Handbook of intervention. The included studies were obtained from the PubMed and ScienceDirect databases. The protocol of this review has been registered in PROSPERO (CRD42021265894). The quality of the studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, outcomes were analyzed using STATA®16, and certainty of evidence was evaluated using GRADE. Results: A total of 239 participants were included in this study, divided into the Micro-PCNL (n = 112) and RIRS (n = 127) procedure groups. Statistical analysis revealed a significantly lower requirement of postoperative stenting procedure in Micro-PCNL compared to RIRS (OR 0.09; 95%CI 0.02, 0.47; p < 0.01). However, no significant difference was found in stone-free rate (p = 0.86), operative time (p = 0.09), UTI incidence (p = 0.67), blood transfusion requirement (p = 0.95), and length of stay (p = 0.77). Conclusion: Micro-PCNL is superior to RIRS in managing pediatric kidney stones,10–20 mm in size based on their comparable SFR and fewer requirements of additional stenting procedures.
- Pediatric renal stones
- Pediatric urolithasis